Historian, essayist and co-founder of the National Portrait Gallery. Born in Ecclefechan, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. Portrayed, second from right, in the 1860 Ford Madox Brown painting 'Work' as a representative 'brainworker'. "In Idleness alone is there perpetual despair." He initiated the creation of the London Library.
After his wife died Carlyle found from her diaries and letters that she had not been happy in their marriage. He tried to atone by writing a memorial to her, which he he gave to Froude to be published after his death. Died at home in Cheyne Row. Buried in Ecclefechan.
Carlyle was a good friend to Mazzini, often having him to stay in Chelsea.